Stress, Mobbing und Burn-out am Arbeitsplatz (German Edition)
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The study protocol and sampling design were approved by the local ethics committee and by the local and federal data safety commissioners.
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The other half completed an alternative questionnaire the ERI questionnaire. In the present study, we investigated the baseline cross-sectional data of all cases that had completed the COPSOQ questionnaire only persons with employment were asked to fill out the questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was There were fewer females We aimed at developing an economic scale with maximum sensitivity.
This strategy resulted in a minimum number of items five that would cover the breadth of the construct sufficiently. The scale value of the five-item mobbing construct was calculated as the mean value of the single items if at least three items were answered if two or less items were answered, no scale value was calculated—it was set to missing. In the analyses related to occupations, we included only professional groups represented by at least 20 employees.
For all other analyses, all cases available were included.
The models were run for both the entire group and females and males separately. The principal component analysis of the scale resulted in a one-factor solution with Mean and standard deviation of mobbing scales range from min. Mean and standard deviation of mobbing scales range from min 0 to max for different occupational groups. We also found gender differences. According to the single-item scale, bullied females had a noticeably higher risk of an intention to quit their job PR of 2.
On the contrary, according to the five-item scale, the prevalence risk ratios were lower for bullied females PR of 1. This population-based study aimed at 1 examining the adequacy of the proposed five-item scale; 2 comparing the proposed five-item scale with the single item that measures mobbing in the German standard version of the COPSOQ; and 3 testing the differential impact of the measured mobbing strategies on relevant outcome parameters.
Goethe-Universität — Prof. Dr. Dieter Zapf
However, as mobbing comprises a variety of different strategies, our emphasis laid on developing a scale with high sensitivity that covers the breadth of the construct sufficiently rather than maximizing internal consistency. Item collections intended to reflect a broad construct such as mobbing will, on average, correlate less highly with each other than will items reflecting a narrow, more tightly defined construct, because each item can only represent a smaller portion of the broad construct Smith et al.
Indeed, regarding sexual harassment, some researchers assume it to be conceptually different from other mobbing strategies Bergman and Henning ; Kauppinen and Tuomola Consequently, the Swedish Heinz Leymann included sexual harassment in his mobbing inventory, the LIPT31, which represents the basis for the newly developed five-item scale Leymann Our empirical findings support this notion, because both the principal component analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis attested the adequacy of the five-item scale as a one-factor mobbing measure, i.
The single-item scale yielded slightly higher numerical scores for mobbing compared to the five-item scale Concerning the latter, research has demonstrated that while sexual harassment at the workplace is severe and linked to a wide range of negative outcomes in victims Berdahl and Raver ; Cortina and Berdahl , sexual harassment is not as common as nonsexual mobbing strategies with men being considerably less frequently affected than women Kauppinen and Tuomola This explains the lower scores for sexual harassment in our study and why we were not able to estimate prevalence risk ratios for men with regard to this item.
Not many employees have such a high number of working areas that one can be taken away every week. At the same time, once a work area is taken, it may have significant long-term detrimental effects. With such a short scale, it was not possible to cover as many categories. However, while this fourth category belongs to the less harmful indirect mobbing strategies Escartin et al. The scale was also related to all six outcome measures, and effect sizes were comparable to those of the five-item scale.
The reason for this may be the open wording of the item without pinpointing concrete acts, which allows for measuring a wide array of mobbing strategies of direct psychological abuse. On the other hand, the differential impact of mobbing became evident when the five-item scale was applied. We could demonstrate that health risks may differ depending on the particular mobbing strategy.
We also found gender-specific differences. In this study, females rated the severity of many types of mobbing as more severe than males did. It is conceivable that men are more affected by work-related forms of mobbing Escartin et al. In support of this, Escartin et al.
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Discussing causality and the detrimental impact of mobbing at work, we cannot rule out a common source bias, as the results are based on self-report only. In a similar vein, the cross-sectional nature of this study and the potential reverse causality has to be kept in mind. Currently, the GHS is assessing 5-year follow-up data. These data will give the opportunity to control for initial states and to prospectively analyze the impact of mobbing on work-related outcomes and even hard outcomes such as cardiovascular events.
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