Intersectionality und Kritik: Neue Perspektiven für alte Fragen (German Edition)

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However, while scholars have assessed the meaning of colonial marriage restrictions in some of the seaborne empires of the nineteenth century, they have largely ignored similar efforts and debates in other imperial contexts. Alexis Rappas and Julia Malitska offer a new perspective on the subject by focusing on marriage regulation in specific regions of the Italian and the 14 Russian empires respectively.

Their research shows that marriage regulation was not just a question of gender and race, but also of religion or denomination, nationality and citizenship, and was strongly connected with questions of access to land and resources. Its very existence, Rappas argues, revealed superficially dissimilar but essentially related Italian and Greek official anxieties regarding the physical and racial boundaries of their contested sovereignty over the archipelago.

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Julia Malitska looks at marriage regulation of German colonists in the Russian Empire during the first half of the nineteenth century. Her analysis is built on colonial administration material from several Ukrainian archives—also rarely employed in research on imperial history. Ethnically and denominationally diverse German-speaking people migrated into the Russian Empire since the end of the eighteenth century and were granted a certain colonist rank in imperial legislation.

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The chapter discusses the legal restrictions on marriage that the German-speaking colonists in the Black Sea Steppe faced, and considers the extent to which their social and legal position was defined by their status as colonists. The analysis stresses the importance of the intersections of gender, denomination, and social position in imperial policy formation. Rappas also investigates individual decisions of couples when they entered into the bond of marriage.

Such questions point again to the importance of studying forms of intimacy in order to understand how colonialism and imperialism worked. With our second focus on intimate relationships and imperial encounters we pick up some of the questions of marriage, intimacy, and sexual relationships that are raised in the first chapter. However, we address them from a different 15 angle by focusing less on imperial policies and more on the day-to-day imperial encounters between colonizers and colonized.

Those relationships between men and women, children and adults, servants and masters offer insights into imperial identity formation as well as power structures. Bettina Brockmeyer tackles this complex issue by focusing on the different readings of an alleged intimate relationship between a colonizing woman and a colonized man in German East Africa. This allows her to study the interplay of individual experiences, hegemonic discourses, and power structures in detail.

She presents readers with the possibility of an affair between the Hehe leader Mpangile and Magdalene Prince, the wife of a colonial commander in German East Africa. Mpangile was hanged in and, as Brockmeyer argues, his story can be unfolded either as a political story of treason and conviction, or as a love story with a lethal ending. By taking various interpretations and unusual sources into account, the chapter opens up our view of the colonial situation, and raises questions about established interpretations of colonial gender relations in a more general way.

Recent years have also seen a new scholarly interest in colonial wars, which were mostly non-declared and fought between unequal military forces. Niedermeier investigates how his protagonist chose to present herself and construct colonial femininity. The analysis also points back to the self-positioning of Magdalene Prince who styled herself as the ideal colonizing woman as Brockmeyer argues in her chapter.

Thematische Klassifikation

For a long time, scholarship on gender and empire has focused predominantly on women to counterbalance the male-centeredness of traditional colonial 16 and imperial history. Recently, the study of colonial masculinities has proven to be a fruitful area of research. He enquires how same-sex desire between male settlers and in some cases between settlers and indigenous men impacted on the formation of colonial masculinities and the development of colonial rule in German Southwest Africa.

His study is based on court files of lawsuits against white male settlers who were charged with violations against clause , a paragraph in German law dealing with male same-sex practices. The lawsuits show quite explicitly that colonial hegemonic masculinities were clearly constituted as heterosexual.

This observation, though trivial at first glance, contradicts generalizing accounts of the colonies as less regulated spaces where men could follow sexual desires more freely, for which they would be persecuted in the European metropoles. The in-depth analysis of the lawsuits reveals striking differences in the sentencing of individuals and shows how the colonial context strongly influenced the way in which same-sex desire was criminalized. The third focus of our volume is gender relations in settler colonial situations.


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Comparative settler colonial studies have emerged as a new research field during the last years. Scholars of this field have guided our attention to the specificities of this colonial formation, where the settlers, rather than the government or economic interest, are the driving force. Gender relations played a crucial part in constructing and upholding these hierarchies. Therefore, debates about sexuality and marriages, about colonial intimacy and about appropriate and inappropriate contacts between colonizers and colonized were generally more charged than in other colonial and imperial settings.

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They were also more likely to lead to restrictive political measures. Elizabeth Dillenburg compares servant debates in South Africa and New Zealand at the end of the nineteenth 17 and beginning of the twentieth century. Although domestic servants are often considered peripheral figures in histories of colonialism, debates over how to solve the chronic servant shortage demonstrate their central role in constructing—and challenging—the foundations of colonial societies and identities. Despite their different social and racial contexts, colonial states in both New Zealand and South Africa used servants as a means to create and maintain ideas of racial purity, which served as the foundations of their respective identities and visions of colonial societies.

Eva Bischoff also addresses the roles of servants and apprentices in settler societies in her exploration of colonial homes in early nineteenth-century Australia. The overall aim was to impart middle-class norms and values upon those children, such as industriousness, cleanliness, and obedience, quite similar to the education efforts in India during the first half of the nineteenth century Divya Kannan discusses in the last chapter of the volume.

Both chapters stress that settler colonialism came into being by organizing populations and individuals along hierarchies structured by gender, race, and 18 class. Dillenburg also illuminates the anxieties about gender, race, and sexuality within the settler colonies of the British Empire at the end of the nineteenth century, thus investigating similar issues as Severin in his analysis of sexuality and masculinity in the only settler colony of the German Empire.

European women actively participated in colonial and imperial endeavors, as several studies have shown. Wives and daughters of settlers, and of colonial officers and missionaries, played a crucial role in the construction of the colonial order and female activists took an active part in many colonial organizations.


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In their capacity as teachers, European women engaged with settler as well as indigenous women and thus helped shape colonial societies. This process not only strengthened the position of European women working as teachers or nurses, it also opened up spaces for indigenous women.


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  6. Jana Tschurenev and Divya Kannan both point to the fact that discourses on female education in India, as well as concrete educational endeavors, were shaped by various intersecting categories like gender, race, class, and religion, and could empower as well as silence specific groups of Indian and European women. At that time strong international links were formed between feminist activism, the promotion of female education and the emergence of new professional possibilities for women in the fields of child-care and health-care connecting 19 the British imperial world with the US and other countries and pointing at the global dimension of imperial education.

    In the history of educational provision so far, the role of European missionary women has been underplayed.

    arlivre.net/templates/spy-location/4266-cell-tracker-spy.html They have often been subsumed under general missionary educational activities, without due attention to the specificities of female schooling. Schooling practices also manifested themselves in the debates on what constituted acceptable moral norms, femininity, family, and work across colonial populations. Kannan examines the educational activities for colonized women and inquires into the ways in which these attempts were appropriated, resisted, and influenced by indigenous populations, paying special attention to the role of Indian women as intermediaries in the educational project.

    The chapters of this book constitute significant fields for the investigation of gendered imperial formations and explore the multidimensionality of global empires during the nineteenth and twentieth century. They address a number of topics that offer fresh perspectives on gender and empire. A recurring theme is the relationship between intimacy and violence that is central in several locales and imperial settings and at various levels.

    The contributors also expand our view by encompassing a seemingly unimportant arena—the colonial home and its servants—and arguing that it stood at the core of the production of imperial rule. However, it is likewise evident that the empires of the nineteenth and twentieth century—especially during the period of high imperialism—were able to exert a growing influence over their territories and people. They intensified the regulations and interventions into 20 the domains of the intimate, the family, education, and sexuality and thereby defined and demarcated gendered roles and practices.

    At a more theoretical level, we use the concept of gendered imperial formations in order to firmly place gender at the center of analysis in an expanding scholarship that compares empires on a broad scale and investigates global and trans-imperial connections between empires.

    The volume thus presents a wide range of case studies that scrutinize the various ways in which imperial formations were structured by gender and other intersecting categories such as race, class, caste, sexuality, religion, denomination, nationality, and citizenship. On the basis of the new findings presented in this volume some suggestions for further research should be added. We advocate that economic issues are more strongly incorporated into the investigation of gender and empire. The chapters on mixed marriages show convincingly how questions of land ownership influenced marriage regulation and vice versa, thus pointing to factors that the existing literature, in focusing on questions of race, sexuality, and citizenship, has often underemphasized.

    The chapters on education, servants, and colonial homes have proven to be highly fruitful fields for explaining the workings of gendered imperial formations; still, more work on imperial social policies would add immensely to our understanding of the field. Furthermore, the volume often refers to general problems of dealing with the colonial archive: Many contributions indicate how extremely productive it can be to explore new sources and to read old ones against the grain in order to give voice to otherwise silenced histories and agencies of indigenous people, or more generally, to question established historical narratives.

    Those relations merit much more attention.

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    In a more general way, the volume closely investigates how imperial policies, that might look similar at first glance, played out highly differently in local situations. This brings us back to our argument to gain new insights into the study of gender and empire by addressing less familiar imperial situations and adding less researched settings e. In doing so, we hope to open up new arenas to the study of gender as a core element of imperial formations. Eine Geschichte des Jahrhunderts Munich : Beck , Princeton : Princeton University Press , The overall aim was to impart middle-class norms and values upon those children, such as industriousness, cleanliness, and obedience, quite similar to the education efforts in India during the first half of the nineteenth century Divya Kannan discusses in the last chapter of the volume.

    Both chapters stress that settler colonialism came into being by organizing populations and individuals along hierarchies structured by gender, race, and 18 class. Dillenburg also illuminates the anxieties about gender, race, and sexuality within the settler colonies of the British Empire at the end of the nineteenth century, thus investigating similar issues as Severin in his analysis of sexuality and masculinity in the only settler colony of the German Empire.

    European women actively participated in colonial and imperial endeavors, as several studies have shown. Wives and daughters of settlers, and of colonial officers and missionaries, played a crucial role in the construction of the colonial order and female activists took an active part in many colonial organizations.